Endometriosis – Management and Treatment at Nyle Hospital

Endometriosis is characterised as a painful, chronic disease affecting woman in the age group of 30s and 40s. It happens when the tissues lining the uterus (also referred as endometrium) are seen to grow outside other than the uterus, including the abdomen, fallopian tubes, ovaries and ligaments supporting the uterus, outer surface of womb, area between the rectum and vagina as well as lining of the pelvic cavity. Other sites encouraging the growth of endometrium include the bowel, bladder, vulva, cervix, vagina and at the surgical scars of abdomen. Rarely, it is identified in the arm, lung, thighs and other organs.

Causes of Endometriosis

The actual cause of endometriosis is unknown, and the possible causes or risk factors may differ from individual to individual. They are as follows:

Family History:

Women having a very close relative (mother or sister) who had a condition of endometriosis are 7 – 10 times more prone to get affected by endometriosis. Moreover, it is commonly seen in twins, especially identical ones.

Retrograde Menstruation:

During menses, there is vaginal discharge of blood, but sometimes, the blood flows back to the pelvis through the fallopian tubes. In almost 90% of the women, the blood containing endometrial tissue gets broken down or absorbed causing no symptoms. While, women affected with endometriosis, the blood endometrial tissue begins to grow.

Other Factors Contributing to the Formation of Endometriosis

  • Delay in pregnancy
  • Early pregnancy
  • Regular cycle happening within 21 days of the last periods
  • Heavy vaginal bleeding during menstruation along with prolonged bleeding lasting for more than 5 days
  • Attaining puberty before 11 years of age
  • Immune cells subjected to changes
  • Alcohol intake
  • Underweight

Managing Endometriosis

Endometriosis cannot be cured and treating it seems to be a challenge for healthcare provider. Treatment facilitates to ease symptoms and help to carry out your daily activities without hindrance. It is vital to discuss the possible side-effects and risk factors associated with each treatment.

  • Pain killers including naproxen and ibuprofen are given to woman to reduce the pain caused by endometriosis.
  • Hormone therapy aims in stopping or limiting the production of estrogens as this hormone favours the formation and shedding of endometriosis tissue.
  • Combination of contraceptive pill and patch containing oestrogen and progestogen hormones are prescribed to affected woman. These medications can overcome mild symptoms and are safe to use for long duration.
  • Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), a T-shaped contraceptive device is fitted inside the uterus for releasing hormone known as levonorgestrel. This prevents fast growth of uterus lining and in turn helps to reduce pain or control periods.
  • Progestogens prevent the lining of uterus as well as reduce the quick growth of endometriosis tissue.
  • Surgery is the best way to destroy or remove endometriosis tissue which aid in the improvement of fertility.
  • Laparoscopy is another simple way to cut away or destroy endometriosis tissue.
  • For severe and extreme cases, laparotomy is performed by surgeons.
  • Hysterectomy (removal of uterus) is the final choice when there is no other option for a woman.