Birth-Control

Birth Control Procedures Prevention of Unwanted Pregnancy at Nyle Hospital

Birth control refers to the use of one or more practices, methods or devices for preventing the occurrence ofpregnancyin sexually active females. It is also termed as pregnancy prevention, family planning, contraception control or induced infertility. The concept of every birth control methods is either to stop fertilization of eggs or implantation of fertilized eggs in the womb.

Temporary Birth Control Procedures

Barrier Methods

Barrier (occlusive) methods aim to prevent the meeting of sperm and ovum. Three types of Barrier methods include:

  • Physical methods They involve the use of condom, vaginal sponge and diaphragm. Condom is fitted to the erected penis for collecting the ejaculated sperms. Diaphragm is a shallow cup-shaped thing made of plastic material or synthetic rubber which is inserted into the vagina. Vaginal sponge is a little polyurethane spongesaturated by a spermicide to kill sperms.
  • Chemical methods It is the use of chemical spermicides in the form of foams (foam aerosols or foam tablets), jelly, pastes, creams, soluble films and suppositories.
  • Combined methods Both the physical and chemical methods can be used simultaneously.

Intra-uterine Devices (IUD)

  • Lippi’s loop (1st generation IUDs) It is a double, S-shaped device designed using non-reactive, non-toxic and durable polyethylene.
  • Second generation IUDs are devices made of copper. Older ones are copper 7 and copper T and newer ones include Multiload devices and Nova T.
  • Progestasert (3rd generation IUDs) It is a T-shaped device containing progesterone which acts by daily releasing hormonein the uterus.

Hormonal Contraceptives

Hormonal contraceptives are one of the most effective contraception that may be administered either by injection or as implants.

Oral Pill (Oral Contraceptives)

These pills contain micrograms of synthetic estrogens and progestogen. One pill must be consumed daily for the next 21 days starting from the 5th day of monthly periods.If is stopped for more than 7 days, the woman would get her menstruation. Mala N and Progostogen-only pill (POP) are the 2 types of oral pills.

Depot Formulations

They involve the use of sub-dermal implants, injectable contraceptives and vaginal rings.

  • DMPA and NET-EN are the use injectable contraceptives given once in 3 months
  • Sub-dermal implants are capsules implanted under the skin of upper arm or forearm which offer effective protection for 5 years.
  • Vaginal rings contain levonorgestrel which is gradually absorbed by means of vaginal mucosa.

Permanent Birth Control Procedure

Sterilization

Female sterilisation puts an end to unwanted pregnancy. It is a surgical procedure wherein the two fallopian tubes of the uterus are blocked or cut off so as to stop the passage of eggs released by the ovaries. Blocked fallopian procedure can be reversed if the woman wishes for conception before menopause.

Postpartum tubal sterilization is performed in any woman who is physically fit after a normal delivery (generally within 48 h) and request for permanent contraception.